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[教程] 从STM32开始的RoboMaster生活:进阶篇 VI [Timer & PWM]

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从STM32开始的RoboMaster生活:进阶篇 VI [Timer & PWM]

1.0 什么是Timer?PWM又是什么玩意儿?

1.1 Timer定义

Timer就是定时器,但是与一般我们生活中使用的定时器不同的是,Timer的单位不是s秒,而是Hz赫兹,而且通常是MHz(1,000,000Hz),定时器通常从0开始数数,然后直到占满其16位寄存器,就会告诉CPU,“我已经满得不行了~~”,然后从0开始重新计数。

Timer具体的频率多少通常取决于,其Clock Source,Prescaler,和Period

> 这里值得注意的是,虽然Prescaler和Period都可以降频,但是根据笔者实测,两者是不一样的,Prescaler会改变PWM信号的密度,所以不推荐过大的Prescaler,而Period会改变PWM信号的Resolution清晰度/分辨率,过小会导致能选择的Duty Cycle占空比过少,所以不推荐过小的Period。但是具体怎么平衡选择,其实还是需要看你的需求和设备。

如果是高级定时器,还需要考虑Repetition Counter

定时器分为

  1. Basic Timer

    • TIM6
    • TIM7
  2. General Purpose Timer

    • TIM2到TIM5
    • TIM9到TIM14
  3. Advanced Timer

    • TIM1

    • TIM8

  4. SysTick Timer

因为RoboMaster暂时只用得上Basic Timer和General Purpose Timer,其他Timer都暂时不讲。在RM中,Basic Timer用于计时,General Purpose Timer用于生成PWM,虽然也可以当成普通的Basic Timer来用。

所有Timer的时钟源分布图

Clock Source for Timer.jpg

在无法确认某个Timer的时钟源在Clock Tree中的位置时,请参考上图!

1.2 PWM定义

PWM ( Pulse Width Modulation ) 脉冲宽度调制技术,通过对一系列脉冲的宽度进行调制,来等效地获得所需要波形(含形状和幅值)。PWM控制技术在逆变电路中应用最广,应用的逆变电路绝大部分是PWM型,PWM控制技术正是有赖于在逆变电路中的应用,才确定了它在电力电子技术中的重要地位。PWM能使电源的输出电压在工作条件变化时保持恒定,是利用微处理器的数字信号对模拟电路进行控制的一种非常有效的技术,广泛应用在从测量通信到功率控制与变换的许多领域中。

最基础最本质的概念:Duty Cycle 占空比

Duty Cycle.png

PWM这项技术的本质其实非常简单,“在不改变最大电压的情况下,通过改变最大电压出现的比率,来改变整体的平均电压”,而这可以顺带传递信息。

PWM通常用于控制电机,舵机,加密信息传递,电压变化控制等等

1.3 PWM的实际应用

1.3.1 呼吸灯

  • 这个很好理解,毕竟越大的Duty Cycle占空比,短时间内的平均电压越大,灯也就越亮,所以控制PWM信号的Duty Cycle占空比就可以在不改变电压的情况下调控瞬时平均电压。

1.3.2 舵机控制

  • 舵机通常可以用CAN或者PWM来控制,PWM是非常常见的舵机控制方式,基本上没有不支持PWM的舵机。PWM的Duty Cycle占空比的大小对应者着舵机的角度。通常频率为50Hz,如果Period为2000,$T_{on}$为50\~250,Duty Cycle占空比为2.5%\~12.5%,则对应着舵机的0°\~180°/0°\~270°。

1.3.3 电机控制

这里以RoboMaster中常见的M3508直流无刷减速电机和C620无刷电机调速器为例

M3508.jpg

  • PWM信号给到C620,然后C620根据其Duty Cycle占空比来控制M3508速度
  • M3508用PWM驱动,需要每次都先校验PWM,需要先给最大Duty Cycle占空比,然后在3s内给最小Duty Cycle占空比
  • M3508是缓启动,也就是说,速度需要从0开始递增,而不能直接让M3508满速
  • M3508能接收的频率为50Hz到500Hz,脉宽从1000us到2000us变化,推荐500Hz,Period为2000
  • M3508分为两种模式
    • 单向转动模式
    • 双向转动模式

2.0 Timer的用法

HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_TIM_Base_Start_IT(TIM_HandleTypeDef *htim);
  • 参数
    • htim:指向TIM配置结构体
  • 返回值
    • HAL_StatusTypeDef:如果开启成功,返回HAL_OK
HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_TIM_Base_Stop_IT(TIM_HandleTypeDef *htim);
  • 参数
    • htim:指向TIM配置结构体
  • 返回值
    • HAL_StatusTypeDef:如果停止成功,返回HAL_OK
void HAL_TIM_PeriodElapsedCallback(TIM_HandleTypeDef *htim){
    ......
}
  • 在写代码的时候,在main.c中创建HAL_TIM_PeriodElapsedCallback函数
  • 在该函数中填写TIM达到预定时间后开启中断,需要执行的代码

3.0 PWM的用法

HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_TIM_PWM_Start(TIM_HandleTypeDef *htim, uint32_t Channel);
  • 参数
    • htim:指向TIM配置结构体
    • Channel:打开的Channel序号
  • 返回值
    • HAL_StatusTypeDef:如果开启成功,返回HAL_OK
HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_TIM_PWM_Stop(TIM_HandleTypeDef *htim, uint32_t Channel);
  • 参数
    • htim:指向TIM配置结构体
    • Channel:打开的Channel序号
  • 返回值
    • HAL_StatusTypeDef:如果停止成功,返回HAL_OK
__HAL_TIM_GET_AUTORELOAD(__HANDLE__);

用于得到Period值,也就是PWM宽度

  • 参数
    • __HANDLE__:指向TIM配置结构体
__HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(__HANDLE__, __CHANNEL__, __COMPARE__);
  • 参数
    • __HANDLE__:指向TIM配置结构体
    • __CHANNEL__:Channel序号
    • __COMPARE__:新的$T_{on}$值,以此改变Duty Cycle占空比

4.0 练习项目

4.1 项目简介

  • 彩灯:按下按键,就开始每0.5s ( 2Hz ) 改变一次所有LED灯状态(交叉点亮)。
  • 呼吸灯:灯光在PWM控制电压下完成由亮到暗的逐渐变化,感觉好像是人在呼吸。
  • 舵机控制:通过PWM控制舵机的位置
  • 电机控制(单向转动模式):通过PWM控制电机的速度
  • 电机控制(双向转动模式):通过PWM控制电机的速度

4.2 项目代码

完整的工程文件可以在这里找到!

4.2.1 彩灯

/* USER CODE BEGIN Header */
/**
  ******************************************************************************
  * @file           : main.c
  * @brief          : Main program body
  ******************************************************************************
  * @attention
  *
  * <h2><center>© Copyright (c) 2020 STMicroelectronics.
  * All rights reserved.</center></h2>
  *
  * This software component is licensed by ST under BSD 3-Clause license,
  * the "License"; You may not use this file except in compliance with the
  * License. You may obtain a copy of the License at:
  *                        opensource.org/licenses/BSD-3-Clause
  *
  ******************************************************************************
  */
/* USER CODE END Header */

/* Includes ------------------------------------------------------------------*/
#include "main.h"

/* Private includes ----------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN Includes */
#include "stdbool.h"
/* USER CODE END Includes */

/* Private typedef -----------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN PTD */

/* USER CODE END PTD */

/* Private define ------------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN PD */
/* USER CODE END PD */

/* Private macro -------------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN PM */

/* USER CODE END PM */

/* Private variables ---------------------------------------------------------*/
TIM_HandleTypeDef htim6;

/* USER CODE BEGIN PV */

/* USER CODE END PV */

/* Private function prototypes -----------------------------------------------*/
void SystemClock_Config(void);
static void MX_GPIO_Init(void);
static void MX_TIM6_Init(void);
/* USER CODE BEGIN PFP */

/* USER CODE END PFP */

/* Private user code ---------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN 0 */
bool flag=false;
/* USER CODE END 0 */

/**
  * @brief  The application entry point.
  * @retval int
  */
int main(void)
{
  /* USER CODE BEGIN 1 */

  /* USER CODE END 1 */

  /* MCU Configuration--------------------------------------------------------*/

  /* Reset of all peripherals, Initializes the Flash interface and the Systick. */
  HAL_Init();

  /* USER CODE BEGIN Init */

  /* USER CODE END Init */

  /* Configure the system clock */
  SystemClock_Config();

  /* USER CODE BEGIN SysInit */

  /* USER CODE END SysInit */

  /* Initialize all configured peripherals */
  MX_GPIO_Init();
  MX_TIM6_Init();
  /* USER CODE BEGIN 2 */
  HAL_GPIO_WritePin(LD_RED_GPIO_Port,LD_RED_Pin,RESET);
  HAL_GPIO_WritePin(LD_GREEN_GPIO_Port,LD_GREEN_Pin,SET);
  HAL_GPIO_WritePin(LD1_GPIO_Port,LD1_Pin,RESET);
  HAL_GPIO_WritePin(LD2_GPIO_Port,LD2_Pin,SET);
  HAL_GPIO_WritePin(LD3_GPIO_Port,LD3_Pin,RESET);
  HAL_GPIO_WritePin(LD4_GPIO_Port,LD4_Pin,SET);
  HAL_GPIO_WritePin(LD5_GPIO_Port,LD5_Pin,RESET);
  HAL_GPIO_WritePin(LD6_GPIO_Port,LD6_Pin,SET);
  HAL_GPIO_WritePin(LD7_GPIO_Port,LD7_Pin,RESET);
  HAL_GPIO_WritePin(LD8_GPIO_Port,LD8_Pin,SET);
  /* USER CODE END 2 */

  /* Infinite loop */
  /* USER CODE BEGIN WHILE */
  while (1)
  {
    /* USER CODE END WHILE */

    /* USER CODE BEGIN 3 */
  }
  /* USER CODE END 3 */
}

/**
  * @brief System Clock Configuration
  * @retval None
  */
void SystemClock_Config(void)
{
  RCC_OscInitTypeDef RCC_OscInitStruct = {0};
  RCC_ClkInitTypeDef RCC_ClkInitStruct = {0};

  /** Configure the main internal regulator output voltage 
  */
  __HAL_RCC_PWR_CLK_ENABLE();
  __HAL_PWR_VOLTAGESCALING_CONFIG(PWR_REGULATOR_VOLTAGE_SCALE1);
  /** Initializes the CPU, AHB and APB busses clocks 
  */
  RCC_OscInitStruct.OscillatorType = RCC_OSCILLATORTYPE_HSE;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.HSEState = RCC_HSE_ON;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLState = RCC_PLL_ON;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLSource = RCC_PLLSOURCE_HSE;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLM = 6;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLN = 168;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLP = RCC_PLLP_DIV2;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLQ = 4;
  if (HAL_RCC_OscConfig(&RCC_OscInitStruct) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  /** Initializes the CPU, AHB and APB busses clocks 
  */
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.ClockType = RCC_CLOCKTYPE_HCLK|RCC_CLOCKTYPE_SYSCLK
                              |RCC_CLOCKTYPE_PCLK1|RCC_CLOCKTYPE_PCLK2;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.SYSCLKSource = RCC_SYSCLKSOURCE_PLLCLK;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.AHBCLKDivider = RCC_SYSCLK_DIV1;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.APB1CLKDivider = RCC_HCLK_DIV4;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.APB2CLKDivider = RCC_HCLK_DIV2;

  if (HAL_RCC_ClockConfig(&RCC_ClkInitStruct, FLASH_LATENCY_5) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
}

/**
  * @brief TIM6 Initialization Function
  * @param None
  * @retval None
  */
static void MX_TIM6_Init(void)
{

  /* USER CODE BEGIN TIM6_Init 0 */

  /* USER CODE END TIM6_Init 0 */

  TIM_MasterConfigTypeDef sMasterConfig = {0};

  /* USER CODE BEGIN TIM6_Init 1 */

  /* USER CODE END TIM6_Init 1 */
  htim6.Instance = TIM6;
  htim6.Init.Prescaler = 41999;
  htim6.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP;
  htim6.Init.Period = 999;
  htim6.Init.AutoReloadPreload = TIM_AUTORELOAD_PRELOAD_DISABLE;
  if (HAL_TIM_Base_Init(&htim6) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  sMasterConfig.MasterOutputTrigger = TIM_TRGO_RESET;
  sMasterConfig.MasterSlaveMode = TIM_MASTERSLAVEMODE_DISABLE;
  if (HAL_TIMEx_MasterConfigSynchronization(&htim6, &sMasterConfig) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  /* USER CODE BEGIN TIM6_Init 2 */

  /* USER CODE END TIM6_Init 2 */

}

/**
  * @brief GPIO Initialization Function
  * @param None
  * @retval None
  */
static void MX_GPIO_Init(void)
{
  GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStruct = {0};

  /* GPIO Ports Clock Enable */
  __HAL_RCC_GPIOH_CLK_ENABLE();
  __HAL_RCC_GPIOG_CLK_ENABLE();
  __HAL_RCC_GPIOB_CLK_ENABLE();
  __HAL_RCC_GPIOE_CLK_ENABLE();
  __HAL_RCC_GPIOF_CLK_ENABLE();

  /*Configure GPIO pin Output Level */
  HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOG, LD8_Pin|LD7_Pin|LD6_Pin|LD5_Pin 
                          |LD4_Pin|LD3_Pin|LD2_Pin|LD1_Pin, GPIO_PIN_RESET);

  /*Configure GPIO pin Output Level */
  HAL_GPIO_WritePin(LD_RED_GPIO_Port, LD_RED_Pin, GPIO_PIN_RESET);

  /*Configure GPIO pin Output Level */
  HAL_GPIO_WritePin(LD_GREEN_GPIO_Port, LD_GREEN_Pin, GPIO_PIN_RESET);

  /*Configure GPIO pins : LD8_Pin LD7_Pin LD6_Pin LD5_Pin 
                           LD4_Pin LD3_Pin LD2_Pin LD1_Pin */
  GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = LD8_Pin|LD7_Pin|LD6_Pin|LD5_Pin 
                          |LD4_Pin|LD3_Pin|LD2_Pin|LD1_Pin;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT_PP;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_FREQ_LOW;
  HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOG, &GPIO_InitStruct);

  /*Configure GPIO pin : Button_Pin */
  GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = Button_Pin;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_IT_RISING;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL;
  HAL_GPIO_Init(Button_GPIO_Port, &GPIO_InitStruct);

  /*Configure GPIO pin : LD_RED_Pin */
  GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = LD_RED_Pin;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT_PP;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_FREQ_LOW;
  HAL_GPIO_Init(LD_RED_GPIO_Port, &GPIO_InitStruct);

  /*Configure GPIO pin : LD_GREEN_Pin */
  GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = LD_GREEN_Pin;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT_PP;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL;
  GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_FREQ_LOW;
  HAL_GPIO_Init(LD_GREEN_GPIO_Port, &GPIO_InitStruct);

  /* EXTI interrupt init*/
  HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(EXTI2_IRQn, 1, 0);
  HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(EXTI2_IRQn);

}

/* USER CODE BEGIN 4 */
void HAL_GPIO_EXTI_Callback(uint16_t GPIO_Pin) {
        if(GPIO_Pin == Button_Pin){
                flag=!flag;
                if(flag){
                        HAL_TIM_Base_Start_IT(&htim6);
                }else{
                        HAL_TIM_Base_Stop_IT(&htim6);
                }
        }
}

void HAL_TIM_PeriodElapsedCallback(TIM_HandleTypeDef *htim) {
        if(htim->Instance == TIM6){
                HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(LD_RED_GPIO_Port,LD_RED_Pin);
                HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(LD_GREEN_GPIO_Port,LD_GREEN_Pin);
                HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(LD1_GPIO_Port,LD1_Pin);
                HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(LD2_GPIO_Port,LD2_Pin);
                HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(LD3_GPIO_Port,LD3_Pin);
                HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(LD4_GPIO_Port,LD4_Pin);
                HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(LD5_GPIO_Port,LD5_Pin);
                HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(LD6_GPIO_Port,LD6_Pin);
                HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(LD7_GPIO_Port,LD7_Pin);
                HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(LD8_GPIO_Port,LD8_Pin);
        }
}
/* USER CODE END 4 */

/**
  * @brief  This function is executed in case of error occurrence.
  * @retval None
  */
void Error_Handler(void)
{
  /* USER CODE BEGIN Error_Handler_Debug */
  /* User can add his own implementation to report the HAL error return state */

  /* USER CODE END Error_Handler_Debug */
}

#ifdef  USE_FULL_ASSERT
/**
  * @brief  Reports the name of the source file and the source line number
  *         where the assert_param error has occurred.
  * @param  file: pointer to the source file name
  * @param  line: assert_param error line source number
  * @retval None
  */
void assert_failed(uint8_t *file, uint32_t line)
{ 
  /* USER CODE BEGIN 6 */
  /* User can add his own implementation to report the file name and line number,
     tex: printf("Wrong parameters value: file %s on line %d\r\n", file, line) */
  /* USER CODE END 6 */
}
#endif /* USE_FULL_ASSERT */

/************************ (C) COPYRIGHT STMicroelectronics *****END OF FILE****/

4.2.2 呼吸灯

/* USER CODE BEGIN Header */
/**
  ******************************************************************************
  * @file           : main.c
  * @brief          : Main program body
  ******************************************************************************
  * @attention
  *
  * <h2><center>© Copyright (c) 2020 STMicroelectronics.
  * All rights reserved.</center></h2>
  *
  * This software component is licensed by ST under BSD 3-Clause license,
  * the "License"; You may not use this file except in compliance with the
  * License. You may obtain a copy of the License at:
  *                        opensource.org/licenses/BSD-3-Clause
  *
  ******************************************************************************
  */
/* USER CODE END Header */

/* Includes ------------------------------------------------------------------*/
#include "main.h"

/* Private includes ----------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN Includes */

/* USER CODE END Includes */

/* Private typedef -----------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN PTD */

/* USER CODE END PTD */

/* Private define ------------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN PD */
/* USER CODE END PD */

/* Private macro -------------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN PM */

/* USER CODE END PM */

/* Private variables ---------------------------------------------------------*/
TIM_HandleTypeDef htim1;

/* USER CODE BEGIN PV */

/* USER CODE END PV */

/* Private function prototypes -----------------------------------------------*/
void SystemClock_Config(void);
static void MX_GPIO_Init(void);
static void MX_TIM1_Init(void);
/* USER CODE BEGIN PFP */

/* USER CODE END PFP */

/* Private user code ---------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN 0 */

/* USER CODE END 0 */

/**
  * @brief  The application entry point.
  * @retval int
  */
int main(void)
{
  /* USER CODE BEGIN 1 */

  /* USER CODE END 1 */

  /* MCU Configuration--------------------------------------------------------*/

  /* Reset of all peripherals, Initializes the Flash interface and the Systick. */
  HAL_Init();

  /* USER CODE BEGIN Init */

  /* USER CODE END Init */

  /* Configure the system clock */
  SystemClock_Config();

  /* USER CODE BEGIN SysInit */

  /* USER CODE END SysInit */

  /* Initialize all configured peripherals */
  MX_GPIO_Init();
  MX_TIM1_Init();
  /* USER CODE BEGIN 2 */
  HAL_TIM_PWM_Start(&htim1,TIM_CHANNEL_2);
  uint16_t dutyCycle=0;
  /* USER CODE END 2 */

  /* Infinite loop */
  /* USER CODE BEGIN WHILE */
  while (1)
  {
          while(dutyCycle < __HAL_TIM_GET_AUTORELOAD(&htim1)){
                  __HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(&htim1,TIM_CHANNEL_2,dutyCycle++);
                  HAL_Delay(1);
          }
          while(dutyCycle > 0){
                  __HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(&htim1,TIM_CHANNEL_2,dutyCycle--);
                  HAL_Delay(1);
          }
    /* USER CODE END WHILE */

    /* USER CODE BEGIN 3 */
  }
  /* USER CODE END 3 */
}

/**
  * @brief System Clock Configuration
  * @retval None
  */
void SystemClock_Config(void)
{
  RCC_OscInitTypeDef RCC_OscInitStruct = {0};
  RCC_ClkInitTypeDef RCC_ClkInitStruct = {0};

  /** Configure the main internal regulator output voltage 
  */
  __HAL_RCC_PWR_CLK_ENABLE();
  __HAL_PWR_VOLTAGESCALING_CONFIG(PWR_REGULATOR_VOLTAGE_SCALE1);
  /** Initializes the CPU, AHB and APB busses clocks 
  */
  RCC_OscInitStruct.OscillatorType = RCC_OSCILLATORTYPE_HSE;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.HSEState = RCC_HSE_ON;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLState = RCC_PLL_ON;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLSource = RCC_PLLSOURCE_HSE;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLM = 6;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLN = 168;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLP = RCC_PLLP_DIV2;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLQ = 4;
  if (HAL_RCC_OscConfig(&RCC_OscInitStruct) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  /** Initializes the CPU, AHB and APB busses clocks 
  */
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.ClockType = RCC_CLOCKTYPE_HCLK|RCC_CLOCKTYPE_SYSCLK
                              |RCC_CLOCKTYPE_PCLK1|RCC_CLOCKTYPE_PCLK2;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.SYSCLKSource = RCC_SYSCLKSOURCE_PLLCLK;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.AHBCLKDivider = RCC_SYSCLK_DIV1;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.APB1CLKDivider = RCC_HCLK_DIV4;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.APB2CLKDivider = RCC_HCLK_DIV2;

  if (HAL_RCC_ClockConfig(&RCC_ClkInitStruct, FLASH_LATENCY_5) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
}

/**
  * @brief TIM1 Initialization Function
  * @param None
  * @retval None
  */
static void MX_TIM1_Init(void)
{

  /* USER CODE BEGIN TIM1_Init 0 */

  /* USER CODE END TIM1_Init 0 */

  TIM_ClockConfigTypeDef sClockSourceConfig = {0};
  TIM_MasterConfigTypeDef sMasterConfig = {0};
  TIM_OC_InitTypeDef sConfigOC = {0};
  TIM_BreakDeadTimeConfigTypeDef sBreakDeadTimeConfig = {0};

  /* USER CODE BEGIN TIM1_Init 1 */

  /* USER CODE END TIM1_Init 1 */
  htim1.Instance = TIM1;
  htim1.Init.Prescaler = 0;
  htim1.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP;
  htim1.Init.Period = 499;
  htim1.Init.ClockDivision = TIM_CLOCKDIVISION_DIV1;
  htim1.Init.RepetitionCounter = 0;
  htim1.Init.AutoReloadPreload = TIM_AUTORELOAD_PRELOAD_DISABLE;
  if (HAL_TIM_Base_Init(&htim1) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  sClockSourceConfig.ClockSource = TIM_CLOCKSOURCE_INTERNAL;
  if (HAL_TIM_ConfigClockSource(&htim1, &sClockSourceConfig) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  if (HAL_TIM_PWM_Init(&htim1) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  sMasterConfig.MasterOutputTrigger = TIM_TRGO_RESET;
  sMasterConfig.MasterSlaveMode = TIM_MASTERSLAVEMODE_DISABLE;
  if (HAL_TIMEx_MasterConfigSynchronization(&htim1, &sMasterConfig) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  sConfigOC.OCMode = TIM_OCMODE_PWM2;
  sConfigOC.Pulse = 0;
  sConfigOC.OCPolarity = TIM_OCPOLARITY_HIGH;
  sConfigOC.OCNPolarity = TIM_OCNPOLARITY_HIGH;
  sConfigOC.OCFastMode = TIM_OCFAST_DISABLE;
  sConfigOC.OCIdleState = TIM_OCIDLESTATE_RESET;
  sConfigOC.OCNIdleState = TIM_OCNIDLESTATE_RESET;
  if (HAL_TIM_PWM_ConfigChannel(&htim1, &sConfigOC, TIM_CHANNEL_2) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  sBreakDeadTimeConfig.OffStateRunMode = TIM_OSSR_DISABLE;
  sBreakDeadTimeConfig.OffStateIDLEMode = TIM_OSSI_DISABLE;
  sBreakDeadTimeConfig.LockLevel = TIM_LOCKLEVEL_OFF;
  sBreakDeadTimeConfig.DeadTime = 0;
  sBreakDeadTimeConfig.BreakState = TIM_BREAK_DISABLE;
  sBreakDeadTimeConfig.BreakPolarity = TIM_BREAKPOLARITY_HIGH;
  sBreakDeadTimeConfig.AutomaticOutput = TIM_AUTOMATICOUTPUT_DISABLE;
  if (HAL_TIMEx_ConfigBreakDeadTime(&htim1, &sBreakDeadTimeConfig) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  /* USER CODE BEGIN TIM1_Init 2 */

  /* USER CODE END TIM1_Init 2 */
  HAL_TIM_MspPostInit(&htim1);

}

/**
  * @brief GPIO Initialization Function
  * @param None
  * @retval None
  */
static void MX_GPIO_Init(void)
{

  /* GPIO Ports Clock Enable */
  __HAL_RCC_GPIOH_CLK_ENABLE();
  __HAL_RCC_GPIOE_CLK_ENABLE();

}

/* USER CODE BEGIN 4 */

/* USER CODE END 4 */

/**
  * @brief  This function is executed in case of error occurrence.
  * @retval None
  */
void Error_Handler(void)
{
  /* USER CODE BEGIN Error_Handler_Debug */
  /* User can add his own implementation to report the HAL error return state */

  /* USER CODE END Error_Handler_Debug */
}

#ifdef  USE_FULL_ASSERT
/**
  * @brief  Reports the name of the source file and the source line number
  *         where the assert_param error has occurred.
  * @param  file: pointer to the source file name
  * @param  line: assert_param error line source number
  * @retval None
  */
void assert_failed(uint8_t *file, uint32_t line)
{ 
  /* USER CODE BEGIN 6 */
  /* User can add his own implementation to report the file name and line number,
     tex: printf("Wrong parameters value: file %s on line %d\r\n", file, line) */
  /* USER CODE END 6 */
}
#endif /* USE_FULL_ASSERT */

/************************ (C) COPYRIGHT STMicroelectronics *****END OF FILE****/

4.2.3 舵机控制

/* USER CODE BEGIN Header */
/**
  ******************************************************************************
  * @file           : main.c
  * @brief          : Main program body
  ******************************************************************************
  * @attention
  *
  * <h2><center>© Copyright (c) 2020 STMicroelectronics.
  * All rights reserved.</center></h2>
  *
  * This software component is licensed by ST under BSD 3-Clause license,
  * the "License"; You may not use this file except in compliance with the
  * License. You may obtain a copy of the License at:
  *                        opensource.org/licenses/BSD-3-Clause
  *
  ******************************************************************************
  */
/* USER CODE END Header */

/* Includes ------------------------------------------------------------------*/
#include "main.h"

/* Private includes ----------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN Includes */

/* USER CODE END Includes */

/* Private typedef -----------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN PTD */

/* USER CODE END PTD */

/* Private define ------------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN PD */
/* USER CODE END PD */

/* Private macro -------------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN PM */

/* USER CODE END PM */

/* Private variables ---------------------------------------------------------*/
TIM_HandleTypeDef htim2;

/* USER CODE BEGIN PV */

/* USER CODE END PV */

/* Private function prototypes -----------------------------------------------*/
void SystemClock_Config(void);
static void MX_GPIO_Init(void);
static void MX_TIM2_Init(void);
/* USER CODE BEGIN PFP */

/* USER CODE END PFP */

/* Private user code ---------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN 0 */

/* USER CODE END 0 */

/**
  * @brief  The application entry point.
  * @retval int
  */
int main(void)
{
  /* USER CODE BEGIN 1 */

  /* USER CODE END 1 */

  /* MCU Configuration--------------------------------------------------------*/

  /* Reset of all peripherals, Initializes the Flash interface and the Systick. */
  HAL_Init();

  /* USER CODE BEGIN Init */

  /* USER CODE END Init */

  /* Configure the system clock */
  SystemClock_Config();

  /* USER CODE BEGIN SysInit */

  /* USER CODE END SysInit */

  /* Initialize all configured peripherals */
  MX_GPIO_Init();
  MX_TIM2_Init();
  /* USER CODE BEGIN 2 */
  HAL_TIM_PWM_Start(&htim2,TIM_CHANNEL_1);
  /* USER CODE END 2 */

  /* Infinite loop */
  /* USER CODE BEGIN WHILE */
  while (1)
  {
          __HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(&htim2,TIM_CHANNEL_1,50);
          HAL_Delay(1000);
          __HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(&htim2,TIM_CHANNEL_1,100);
          HAL_Delay(500);
          __HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(&htim2,TIM_CHANNEL_1,150);
          HAL_Delay(500);
          __HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(&htim2,TIM_CHANNEL_1,200);
          HAL_Delay(500);
          __HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(&htim2,TIM_CHANNEL_1,250);
          HAL_Delay(500);
    /* USER CODE END WHILE */

    /* USER CODE BEGIN 3 */
  }
  /* USER CODE END 3 */
}

/**
  * @brief System Clock Configuration
  * @retval None
  */
void SystemClock_Config(void)
{
  RCC_OscInitTypeDef RCC_OscInitStruct = {0};
  RCC_ClkInitTypeDef RCC_ClkInitStruct = {0};

  /** Configure the main internal regulator output voltage 
  */
  __HAL_RCC_PWR_CLK_ENABLE();
  __HAL_PWR_VOLTAGESCALING_CONFIG(PWR_REGULATOR_VOLTAGE_SCALE1);
  /** Initializes the CPU, AHB and APB busses clocks 
  */
  RCC_OscInitStruct.OscillatorType = RCC_OSCILLATORTYPE_HSE;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.HSEState = RCC_HSE_ON;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLState = RCC_PLL_ON;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLSource = RCC_PLLSOURCE_HSE;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLM = 6;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLN = 168;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLP = RCC_PLLP_DIV2;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLQ = 4;
  if (HAL_RCC_OscConfig(&RCC_OscInitStruct) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  /** Initializes the CPU, AHB and APB busses clocks 
  */
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.ClockType = RCC_CLOCKTYPE_HCLK|RCC_CLOCKTYPE_SYSCLK
                              |RCC_CLOCKTYPE_PCLK1|RCC_CLOCKTYPE_PCLK2;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.SYSCLKSource = RCC_SYSCLKSOURCE_PLLCLK;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.AHBCLKDivider = RCC_SYSCLK_DIV1;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.APB1CLKDivider = RCC_HCLK_DIV4;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.APB2CLKDivider = RCC_HCLK_DIV2;

  if (HAL_RCC_ClockConfig(&RCC_ClkInitStruct, FLASH_LATENCY_5) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
}

/**
  * @brief TIM2 Initialization Function
  * @param None
  * @retval None
  */
static void MX_TIM2_Init(void)
{

  /* USER CODE BEGIN TIM2_Init 0 */

  /* USER CODE END TIM2_Init 0 */

  TIM_ClockConfigTypeDef sClockSourceConfig = {0};
  TIM_MasterConfigTypeDef sMasterConfig = {0};
  TIM_OC_InitTypeDef sConfigOC = {0};

  /* USER CODE BEGIN TIM2_Init 1 */

  /* USER CODE END TIM2_Init 1 */
  htim2.Instance = TIM2;
  htim2.Init.Prescaler = 839;
  htim2.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP;
  htim2.Init.Period = 1999;
  htim2.Init.ClockDivision = TIM_CLOCKDIVISION_DIV1;
  htim2.Init.AutoReloadPreload = TIM_AUTORELOAD_PRELOAD_DISABLE;
  if (HAL_TIM_Base_Init(&htim2) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  sClockSourceConfig.ClockSource = TIM_CLOCKSOURCE_INTERNAL;
  if (HAL_TIM_ConfigClockSource(&htim2, &sClockSourceConfig) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  if (HAL_TIM_PWM_Init(&htim2) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  sMasterConfig.MasterOutputTrigger = TIM_TRGO_RESET;
  sMasterConfig.MasterSlaveMode = TIM_MASTERSLAVEMODE_DISABLE;
  if (HAL_TIMEx_MasterConfigSynchronization(&htim2, &sMasterConfig) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  sConfigOC.OCMode = TIM_OCMODE_PWM1;
  sConfigOC.Pulse = 150;
  sConfigOC.OCPolarity = TIM_OCPOLARITY_HIGH;
  sConfigOC.OCFastMode = TIM_OCFAST_DISABLE;
  if (HAL_TIM_PWM_ConfigChannel(&htim2, &sConfigOC, TIM_CHANNEL_1) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  /* USER CODE BEGIN TIM2_Init 2 */

  /* USER CODE END TIM2_Init 2 */
  HAL_TIM_MspPostInit(&htim2);

}

/**
  * @brief GPIO Initialization Function
  * @param None
  * @retval None
  */
static void MX_GPIO_Init(void)
{

  /* GPIO Ports Clock Enable */
  __HAL_RCC_GPIOH_CLK_ENABLE();
  __HAL_RCC_GPIOA_CLK_ENABLE();

}

/* USER CODE BEGIN 4 */

/* USER CODE END 4 */

/**
  * @brief  This function is executed in case of error occurrence.
  * @retval None
  */
void Error_Handler(void)
{
  /* USER CODE BEGIN Error_Handler_Debug */
  /* User can add his own implementation to report the HAL error return state */

  /* USER CODE END Error_Handler_Debug */
}

#ifdef  USE_FULL_ASSERT
/**
  * @brief  Reports the name of the source file and the source line number
  *         where the assert_param error has occurred.
  * @param  file: pointer to the source file name
  * @param  line: assert_param error line source number
  * @retval None
  */
void assert_failed(uint8_t *file, uint32_t line)
{ 
  /* USER CODE BEGIN 6 */
  /* User can add his own implementation to report the file name and line number,
     tex: printf("Wrong parameters value: file %s on line %d\r\n", file, line) */
  /* USER CODE END 6 */
}
#endif /* USE_FULL_ASSERT */

/************************ (C) COPYRIGHT STMicroelectronics *****END OF FILE****/

4.2.4 电机控制(单向转动模式)

/* USER CODE BEGIN Header */
/**
  ******************************************************************************
  * @file           : main.c
  * @brief          : Main program body
  ******************************************************************************
  * @attention
  *
  * <h2><center>© Copyright (c) 2020 STMicroelectronics.
  * All rights reserved.</center></h2>
  *
  * This software component is licensed by ST under BSD 3-Clause license,
  * the "License"; You may not use this file except in compliance with the
  * License. You may obtain a copy of the License at:
  *                        opensource.org/licenses/BSD-3-Clause
  *
  ******************************************************************************
  */
/* USER CODE END Header */

/* Includes ------------------------------------------------------------------*/
#include "main.h"

/* Private includes ----------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN Includes */

/* USER CODE END Includes */

/* Private typedef -----------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN PTD */

/* USER CODE END PTD */

/* Private define ------------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN PD */
/* USER CODE END PD */

/* Private macro -------------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN PM */

/* USER CODE END PM */

/* Private variables ---------------------------------------------------------*/
TIM_HandleTypeDef htim2;

/* USER CODE BEGIN PV */

/* USER CODE END PV */

/* Private function prototypes -----------------------------------------------*/
void SystemClock_Config(void);
static void MX_GPIO_Init(void);
static void MX_TIM2_Init(void);
/* USER CODE BEGIN PFP */

/* USER CODE END PFP */

/* Private user code ---------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN 0 */

/* USER CODE END 0 */

/**
  * @brief  The application entry point.
  * @retval int
  */
int main(void)
{
  /* USER CODE BEGIN 1 */

  /* USER CODE END 1 */

  /* MCU Configuration--------------------------------------------------------*/

  /* Reset of all peripherals, Initializes the Flash interface and the Systick. */
  HAL_Init();

  /* USER CODE BEGIN Init */

  /* USER CODE END Init */

  /* Configure the system clock */
  SystemClock_Config();

  /* USER CODE BEGIN SysInit */

  /* USER CODE END SysInit */

  /* Initialize all configured peripherals */
  MX_GPIO_Init();
  MX_TIM2_Init();
  /* USER CODE BEGIN 2 */
  HAL_TIM_PWM_Start(&htim2,TIM_CHANNEL_1);
  __uint16_t flag=0;
  /* USER CODE END 2 */

  /* Infinite loop */
  /* USER CODE BEGIN WHILE */
  while (1)
  {
          while(flag < 2000){
            __HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(&htim2,TIM_CHANNEL_1,flag++);
            HAL_Delay(3);
          }
          while(flag > 1000){
            __HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(&htim2,TIM_CHANNEL_1,flag--);
            HAL_Delay(3);
          }
          //__HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(&htim2,TIM_CHANNEL_1,2000);
          //HAL_Delay(1000);
    /* USER CODE END WHILE */

    /* USER CODE BEGIN 3 */
  }
  /* USER CODE END 3 */
}

/**
  * @brief System Clock Configuration
  * @retval None
  */
void SystemClock_Config(void)
{
  RCC_OscInitTypeDef RCC_OscInitStruct = {0};
  RCC_ClkInitTypeDef RCC_ClkInitStruct = {0};

  /** Configure the main internal regulator output voltage 
  */
  __HAL_RCC_PWR_CLK_ENABLE();
  __HAL_PWR_VOLTAGESCALING_CONFIG(PWR_REGULATOR_VOLTAGE_SCALE1);
  /** Initializes the CPU, AHB and APB busses clocks 
  */
  RCC_OscInitStruct.OscillatorType = RCC_OSCILLATORTYPE_HSE;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.HSEState = RCC_HSE_ON;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLState = RCC_PLL_ON;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLSource = RCC_PLLSOURCE_HSE;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLM = 6;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLN = 168;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLP = RCC_PLLP_DIV2;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLQ = 4;
  if (HAL_RCC_OscConfig(&RCC_OscInitStruct) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  /** Initializes the CPU, AHB and APB busses clocks 
  */
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.ClockType = RCC_CLOCKTYPE_HCLK|RCC_CLOCKTYPE_SYSCLK
                              |RCC_CLOCKTYPE_PCLK1|RCC_CLOCKTYPE_PCLK2;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.SYSCLKSource = RCC_SYSCLKSOURCE_PLLCLK;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.AHBCLKDivider = RCC_SYSCLK_DIV1;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.APB1CLKDivider = RCC_HCLK_DIV4;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.APB2CLKDivider = RCC_HCLK_DIV2;

  if (HAL_RCC_ClockConfig(&RCC_ClkInitStruct, FLASH_LATENCY_5) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
}

/**
  * @brief TIM2 Initialization Function
  * @param None
  * @retval None
  */
static void MX_TIM2_Init(void)
{

  /* USER CODE BEGIN TIM2_Init 0 */

  /* USER CODE END TIM2_Init 0 */

  TIM_ClockConfigTypeDef sClockSourceConfig = {0};
  TIM_MasterConfigTypeDef sMasterConfig = {0};
  TIM_OC_InitTypeDef sConfigOC = {0};

  /* USER CODE BEGIN TIM2_Init 1 */

  /* USER CODE END TIM2_Init 1 */
  htim2.Instance = TIM2;
  htim2.Init.Prescaler = 83;
  htim2.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP;
  htim2.Init.Period = 1999;
  htim2.Init.ClockDivision = TIM_CLOCKDIVISION_DIV1;
  htim2.Init.AutoReloadPreload = TIM_AUTORELOAD_PRELOAD_DISABLE;
  if (HAL_TIM_Base_Init(&htim2) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  sClockSourceConfig.ClockSource = TIM_CLOCKSOURCE_INTERNAL;
  if (HAL_TIM_ConfigClockSource(&htim2, &sClockSourceConfig) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  if (HAL_TIM_PWM_Init(&htim2) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  sMasterConfig.MasterOutputTrigger = TIM_TRGO_RESET;
  sMasterConfig.MasterSlaveMode = TIM_MASTERSLAVEMODE_DISABLE;
  if (HAL_TIMEx_MasterConfigSynchronization(&htim2, &sMasterConfig) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  sConfigOC.OCMode = TIM_OCMODE_PWM1;
  sConfigOC.Pulse = 2000;
  sConfigOC.OCPolarity = TIM_OCPOLARITY_HIGH;
  sConfigOC.OCFastMode = TIM_OCFAST_DISABLE;
  if (HAL_TIM_PWM_ConfigChannel(&htim2, &sConfigOC, TIM_CHANNEL_1) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  /* USER CODE BEGIN TIM2_Init 2 */

  /* USER CODE END TIM2_Init 2 */
  HAL_TIM_MspPostInit(&htim2);

}

/**
  * @brief GPIO Initialization Function
  * @param None
  * @retval None
  */
static void MX_GPIO_Init(void)
{

  /* GPIO Ports Clock Enable */
  __HAL_RCC_GPIOH_CLK_ENABLE();
  __HAL_RCC_GPIOA_CLK_ENABLE();

}

/* USER CODE BEGIN 4 */

/* USER CODE END 4 */

/**
  * @brief  This function is executed in case of error occurrence.
  * @retval None
  */
void Error_Handler(void)
{
  /* USER CODE BEGIN Error_Handler_Debug */
  /* User can add his own implementation to report the HAL error return state */

  /* USER CODE END Error_Handler_Debug */
}

#ifdef  USE_FULL_ASSERT
/**
  * @brief  Reports the name of the source file and the source line number
  *         where the assert_param error has occurred.
  * @param  file: pointer to the source file name
  * @param  line: assert_param error line source number
  * @retval None
  */
void assert_failed(uint8_t *file, uint32_t line)
{ 
  /* USER CODE BEGIN 6 */
  /* User can add his own implementation to report the file name and line number,
     tex: printf("Wrong parameters value: file %s on line %d\r\n", file, line) */
  /* USER CODE END 6 */
}
#endif /* USE_FULL_ASSERT */

/************************ (C) COPYRIGHT STMicroelectronics *****END OF FILE****/

4.2.4 电机控制(双向转动模式)

/* USER CODE BEGIN Header */
/**
  ******************************************************************************
  * @file           : main.c
  * @brief          : Main program body
  ******************************************************************************
  * @attention
  *
  * <h2><center>© Copyright (c) 2020 STMicroelectronics.
  * All rights reserved.</center></h2>
  *
  * This software component is licensed by ST under BSD 3-Clause license,
  * the "License"; You may not use this file except in compliance with the
  * License. You may obtain a copy of the License at:
  *                        opensource.org/licenses/BSD-3-Clause
  *
  ******************************************************************************
  */
/* USER CODE END Header */

/* Includes ------------------------------------------------------------------*/
#include "main.h"

/* Private includes ----------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN Includes */

/* USER CODE END Includes */

/* Private typedef -----------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN PTD */

/* USER CODE END PTD */

/* Private define ------------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN PD */
/* USER CODE END PD */

/* Private macro -------------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN PM */

/* USER CODE END PM */

/* Private variables ---------------------------------------------------------*/
TIM_HandleTypeDef htim2;

/* USER CODE BEGIN PV */

/* USER CODE END PV */

/* Private function prototypes -----------------------------------------------*/
void SystemClock_Config(void);
static void MX_GPIO_Init(void);
static void MX_TIM2_Init(void);
/* USER CODE BEGIN PFP */

/* USER CODE END PFP */

/* Private user code ---------------------------------------------------------*/
/* USER CODE BEGIN 0 */

/* USER CODE END 0 */

/**
  * @brief  The application entry point.
  * @retval int
  */
int main(void)
{
  /* USER CODE BEGIN 1 */

  /* USER CODE END 1 */

  /* MCU Configuration--------------------------------------------------------*/

  /* Reset of all peripherals, Initializes the Flash interface and the Systick. */
  HAL_Init();

  /* USER CODE BEGIN Init */

  /* USER CODE END Init */

  /* Configure the system clock */
  SystemClock_Config();

  /* USER CODE BEGIN SysInit */

  /* USER CODE END SysInit */

  /* Initialize all configured peripherals */
  MX_GPIO_Init();
  MX_TIM2_Init();
  /* USER CODE BEGIN 2 */
  HAL_TIM_PWM_Start(&htim2,TIM_CHANNEL_1);
  __HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(&htim2,TIM_CHANNEL_1,0);
  HAL_Delay(2000);
  uint16_t flag=1500;
  /* USER CODE END 2 */

  /* Infinite loop */
  /* USER CODE BEGIN WHILE */
  while (1)
  {
          while(flag < 2000){
                  __HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(&htim2,TIM_CHANNEL_1,flag++);
                  HAL_Delay(3);
          }
          while(flag > 1000){
                  __HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(&htim2,TIM_CHANNEL_1,flag--);
                  HAL_Delay(3);
          }
    /* USER CODE END WHILE */

    /* USER CODE BEGIN 3 */
  }
  /* USER CODE END 3 */
}

/**
  * @brief System Clock Configuration
  * @retval None
  */
void SystemClock_Config(void)
{
  RCC_OscInitTypeDef RCC_OscInitStruct = {0};
  RCC_ClkInitTypeDef RCC_ClkInitStruct = {0};

  /** Configure the main internal regulator output voltage 
  */
  __HAL_RCC_PWR_CLK_ENABLE();
  __HAL_PWR_VOLTAGESCALING_CONFIG(PWR_REGULATOR_VOLTAGE_SCALE1);
  /** Initializes the CPU, AHB and APB busses clocks 
  */
  RCC_OscInitStruct.OscillatorType = RCC_OSCILLATORTYPE_HSE;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.HSEState = RCC_HSE_ON;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLState = RCC_PLL_ON;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLSource = RCC_PLLSOURCE_HSE;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLM = 6;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLN = 168;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLP = RCC_PLLP_DIV2;
  RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLQ = 4;
  if (HAL_RCC_OscConfig(&RCC_OscInitStruct) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  /** Initializes the CPU, AHB and APB busses clocks 
  */
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.ClockType = RCC_CLOCKTYPE_HCLK|RCC_CLOCKTYPE_SYSCLK
                              |RCC_CLOCKTYPE_PCLK1|RCC_CLOCKTYPE_PCLK2;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.SYSCLKSource = RCC_SYSCLKSOURCE_PLLCLK;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.AHBCLKDivider = RCC_SYSCLK_DIV1;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.APB1CLKDivider = RCC_HCLK_DIV4;
  RCC_ClkInitStruct.APB2CLKDivider = RCC_HCLK_DIV2;

  if (HAL_RCC_ClockConfig(&RCC_ClkInitStruct, FLASH_LATENCY_5) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
}

/**
  * @brief TIM2 Initialization Function
  * @param None
  * @retval None
  */
static void MX_TIM2_Init(void)
{

  /* USER CODE BEGIN TIM2_Init 0 */

  /* USER CODE END TIM2_Init 0 */

  TIM_MasterConfigTypeDef sMasterConfig = {0};
  TIM_OC_InitTypeDef sConfigOC = {0};

  /* USER CODE BEGIN TIM2_Init 1 */

  /* USER CODE END TIM2_Init 1 */
  htim2.Instance = TIM2;
  htim2.Init.Prescaler = 83;
  htim2.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP;
  htim2.Init.Period = 1999;
  htim2.Init.ClockDivision = TIM_CLOCKDIVISION_DIV1;
  htim2.Init.AutoReloadPreload = TIM_AUTORELOAD_PRELOAD_DISABLE;
  if (HAL_TIM_PWM_Init(&htim2) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  sMasterConfig.MasterOutputTrigger = TIM_TRGO_RESET;
  sMasterConfig.MasterSlaveMode = TIM_MASTERSLAVEMODE_DISABLE;
  if (HAL_TIMEx_MasterConfigSynchronization(&htim2, &sMasterConfig) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  sConfigOC.OCMode = TIM_OCMODE_PWM1;
  sConfigOC.Pulse = 2000;
  sConfigOC.OCPolarity = TIM_OCPOLARITY_HIGH;
  sConfigOC.OCFastMode = TIM_OCFAST_DISABLE;
  if (HAL_TIM_PWM_ConfigChannel(&htim2, &sConfigOC, TIM_CHANNEL_1) != HAL_OK)
  {
    Error_Handler();
  }
  /* USER CODE BEGIN TIM2_Init 2 */

  /* USER CODE END TIM2_Init 2 */
  HAL_TIM_MspPostInit(&htim2);

}

/**
  * @brief GPIO Initialization Function
  * @param None
  * @retval None
  */
static void MX_GPIO_Init(void)
{

  /* GPIO Ports Clock Enable */
  __HAL_RCC_GPIOH_CLK_ENABLE();
  __HAL_RCC_GPIOA_CLK_ENABLE();

}

/* USER CODE BEGIN 4 */

/* USER CODE END 4 */

/**
  * @brief  This function is executed in case of error occurrence.
  * @retval None
  */
void Error_Handler(void)
{
  /* USER CODE BEGIN Error_Handler_Debug */
  /* User can add his own implementation to report the HAL error return state */

  /* USER CODE END Error_Handler_Debug */
}

#ifdef  USE_FULL_ASSERT
/**
  * @brief  Reports the name of the source file and the source line number
  *         where the assert_param error has occurred.
  * @param  file: pointer to the source file name
  * @param  line: assert_param error line source number
  * @retval None
  */
void assert_failed(uint8_t *file, uint32_t line)
{ 
  /* USER CODE BEGIN 6 */
  /* User can add his own implementation to report the file name and line number,
     tex: printf("Wrong parameters value: file %s on line %d\r\n", file, line) */
  /* USER CODE END 6 */
}
#endif /* USE_FULL_ASSERT */

/************************ (C) COPYRIGHT STMicroelectronics *****END OF FILE****/

4.3 效果展示



https://www.bilibili.com/video/BV177411m7we/

本文已经同步发布于作者部署的私人博客
为了更好的排版和观看体验
可以移步到 从STM32开始的RoboMaster生活:进阶篇 VI [Timer & PWM]

如果诸位看官喜欢的话,想让这个系列继续下去的话,就请在下方留言吧~

Vibranium  高级技师

发表于 2020-3-24 07:50:11

D0600EDA-C26F-4DFF-8248-2C0559B6A9D2.png 大佬大佬,学习到了很多
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dannie  见习技师

发表于 2020-3-26 09:01:29

不错不错
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gada888  版主

发表于 2020-5-30 16:48:00

就是玩的人少
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